Journal Article


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Analysis of Dairy Pilot Scheme in Some Agro-Pastoral Communities in Nigeria

By Annatte I., Ojo O.a., Nuhu S., Onimisi H.u., Ikani I.e. And Bolorunduro P.i.

Pilot dairy development schemes in Nigeria are alternative interventions aimed at
addressing the inadequacy of agro-pastoral production systems. The study sought to
find out the extent to which the dairy pilot project interventions can improve access to
extension services, production inputs, improve milk production, milk collection/bulking,
processing and marketing. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods such
as, focus group discussions, pastoralist organization into registered cooperative groups,
and animal production support activities to generate data. Group production dynamics
and disseminating of proven dairy technologies were monitored for changes. The
findings showed that there are vibrant agro-pastoral groups providing milk and dairy
products to their immediate communities. There were also environmental and social
issues in some of the sedentary communities. Farmers groups were linked to sources of
inputs, markets, external services and other stakeholders. The schemes the study
established in most of the communities were found to be the main link between the
formal market for raw milk collection and bulking and external agents. The most
dominant extension service methods in the study area were on crop-residue processing
and utilization, feed supplementation, animal health care, fodder crop production, milk
collection, bulking, processing and marketing. State extension agents were least
motivated to work with pastoralists because of the difficult nature and associated costs.
The study recommended that motivation packages such as pasture promotion and
production should be encouraged by government and stakeholders; that government
should promote more sedentary and modern strategies for achieving improved
productivity and profitability, especially for peri-urban agro-pastoralists; and that agropastoralists should be linked to relevant institutions for fund generation activities.

Published: 06/02/2018

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 19, Number 2, June 2018. Pp. 17-25

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The Radio Programme Agric Panorama and Its Implications for Agricultural Practices in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria

By Faruk N.b., Okaiyeto S.a. And Musa A

The main objective of this study was to assess the role of the radio programme Agric
Panorama and its implications for farmers’ practices in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. Survey
research design and simple random sampling were adopted. One hundred and thirtyone (131) questionnaires were administered to Samaru farmers’ as respondents and
126 were retrieved and analysed. Findings revealed that the target farmers access the
programme through ABU FM 101.1 Radio and agreed that it has aided their farming
practices. A majority of the farmers (86.9%) believed that the programme has
contributed towards improving their farming practices (M=4.3, SD=.86); through delivery
of useful information on agricultural management, improved fertilization, disease
control, seeds and up to date information on best practices. Regression analysis
(R2=0.38, P=0.032) shows that exposure to Agric Panorama programme is significantly
and positively correlated with improvement of agricultural practices. Poor power supply,
insufficient time, and language barrier were found to the major challenges faced by
listeners in accessing the programme. It is recommended that a Hausa version of the
programme should be introduced as majority of the Samaru farmers are Hausas.

Published: 03/02/2018

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 19, Number 1, March 2018 Pp 49-55

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Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Cassava Varieties in Some Selected Communities in Ajaokuta LGA, Kogi State, Nigeria

By O.a. Ojeleye1, E.a. Ibrahim2, R. Suleiman1, S.d. Olorunfemi3 And I. Isah3

This study was designed to determine the factors affecting the adoption of improved
cassava cultivars TMS 30572, TME 419, TMS 30001, and UMUCASS 38 in Ajaokuta LGA
of Kogi State. 172 cassava farmers were randomly selected from 10 communities in
Ajaokuta LGA. Structured Questionnaire was developed and used for data collection. Logit
regression model was used to indicate the age of household head, years of farming
experience, marital status and frequency of extension contacts as measures of the
adoption factors. The result of the study showed that there is general lack of interest and
unawareness among the farmers. The awareness rates of these varieties range between
39.0 to 62.8%. Majority of farmers sourced farming information from friends/other farmers,
while information through posters/leaflets and radio were least utilized. Furthermore, poor
markets, the uncertainty of production, unavailability of cultivars, lack of agrochemicals
and poor knowledge of the management practices were the major factors affecting
adoption. There is the need to fill in the gap for poor management knowledge of the
available improved varieties, to properly serve the technology transfer needs of the
farmers, The study recommended that government and non-government organizations has
more roles to play in the extension service delivery to the farmers. The state agricultural
stakeholders and policy makers also need to create markets for cassava products so as to
encourage more production.03

Published: 09/03/2017

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 18, Number 3, September 2017 pp 21 -26

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Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Water Hyacinth Briquettes as an Alternative to Firewood in Samaru, Nigeria

By Yusuf H.o., Davies R.m. And Yusuf D.d.

Water hyacinth briquettes were used in Samaru, Nigeria, as alternative energy for
cooking, following increasing price of fossil fuel and the firewood crisis in rural Nigeria
due to the high demand. However, adoption level of the briquetteste has remained low.
This study was conducted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence
adoption of the briquettes as an alternative to firewood as energy source for household
cooking. A random sampling procedure was used to select 250 farmers as respondents
and surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Tobit regression model was used to
estimate the socio-economic influence on the adoption of briquettes. Results of the study
shows that most of the respondents acquired primary education (51.2%), about 62.4%
had a household size of 4-7, while 37.6% of them have 11 to 20 years of farming
experience. The regression analysis showed that involvement of extension officers,
gender and marital status had significant influence on farmers’ adoption of briquettes.
Significant differences at P < 0.01 level for higher fuel thermal efficiency (28.2%), and
calorific value (4476 kcal/kg) were obtained for briquettes as compared to firewood. It
was recommended that, there is need for awareness creation on availability of this and
other alternative energy sources for cooking, bearing in mind user preferences.

Published: 03/02/2018

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 19, Number 1, March 2018 Pp 14-22

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Evaluating the Effectiveness of Extension Methods used by National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) in Kaduna State, Nigeria

By S. Usman

Using cross-sectional data of 164 crop farmers from two NAERLS adopted villages in
Kaduna State, a binary response model was employed to evaluate the effectiveness of
NAERLS extension methods in influencing crop farmers’ decision to adopt improved crop
production technologies. Among all the seven extension methods commonly used by
NAERLS in disseminating improved crop production technologies, only the extension agent
visit method (p

Published: 09/03/2017

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 18, Number 3, September 2017 pp 2 - 6

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Price Transmission of Cowpea in Niger State of Nigeria

By Sadiq M.s. And Isah M.a

This study investigated price transmission of the three major urban cowpea markets
and their respective adjunct rural market across the agricultural zones in Niger state of
Nigeria using monthly time series data spanning from January 2003 to December 2016.
The selected urban markets were Bida, Minna and Kontagora, and their adjunct rural
markets were Lafene, Zungeru and Manigi, respectively. Model build on the assumption
of linear and symmetric price transmission was used to analyze the data. The test
market results both at horizontal and vertical integrated levels proved that despite that
these markets were spatially separated geographically; they were well connected in
terms of price transmission across them. It was observed that price changes are
temporary and would converge to an equilibrium within a given time span. A proper
focus on domestic supply management coupled with strong market surveillance and
intelligence efforts would help control escalating prices and also help in minimizing the
distortions widening the gap between the wholesale and retail prices of cowpea.

Published: 03/02/2018

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 19, Number 1, March 2018 Pp 91-98

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Enhancing University-Based Extension System in Nigeria: Lessons from the Putra Outreach Clinic

By Sulaiman Umar1, 2, *, Norsida Man1 And Rudie Bin Tajuddin3

With the shortage of manpower and funds affecting agricultural extension in developing
countries, the need to adapt more innovative means of delivery is imperative. This study
describes the Putra Outreach Clinic of Universiti Putra Malaysia. The flexible and versatile
structure makes the bus suitable for multiple advisory events. The study also explores how
the automobile facility could be incorporated into the perennial university-based
agricultural extension system in Nigeria for enhanced university-community relations. It is
recommended that institutions and agencies involved in extension activities obtain this
efficient facility for improved services towards rural and agricultural development. This
would improve university-community partnership and ensure community transformation as
evident in the case studied.

Published: 09/03/2017

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 18, Number 3, September 2017 109 - 112

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Price Discovery and Volatility of Vertical Integrated Cowpea Markets (Rural-Urban) in Niger State of Nigeria

By Sadiq M.s., Singh I.p. And Isah M.a

The study focused on price discovery and volatility of cowpea in the three major urban
markets and their respective adjunct rural markets across the zones in Niger state of
Nigeria. Monthly time series data spanning from January, 2003 to December, 2016
were used for this study and the data were analysed using descriptive and inferential
statistics. The results indicated that Bida market and its adjunct rural market (Lefane
market) were found to be more efficient than their counterparts as evident from the
cyclical trends of their respective seasonal pattern which were less pronounced. The
results of the unit root tests showed that all the price series data of the selected
markets were integrated of order 1. Furthermore, the relationship between the urban
market price and rural market price in terms of price discovery revealed non-occurrence
of hedging in almost all the market periods, with neither urban nor rural market
dominating the process of price discovery thus, indicating efficient performance of
trading in cowpea by both markets. The extent of volatility in prices of cowpea due to
trading was persistent in Kontagora market, and explosive in Bida and Minna markets
due to some arbitrage activities in the latter markets. Therefore, the study recommends
strengthening of physical infrastructure, use of information and communication
technology and well defined transparent agricultural policy-market measures in the
state that will help in the development of single uniform economic market in the region
in particular and country in general.

Published: 03/02/2018

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 19, Number 1, March 2018 Pp 63-70

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Effect of Storage Structure Design on Onion Bulb Sprouting

By G.a. Fumen,1 Z.d. Osunde1 And A.t. Yusuf2

To minimized storage losses and develop more efficient onion storage structures, effects of
cover material colour, shape and elevation on the average internal temperature and
relative humidity of naturally ventilated cribs and mean percent bulb sprouting of stored
onion was evaluated. Three colours of fibre net with the same hole size (18- mesh) were
used as cover materials. Weighed samples of medium sized Kano-red onion bulbs were
loaded into the cribs and monitored periodically. Mean internal temperature and relative
humidity of the cribs were monitored using a digital temperature-relative humidity
metering device, while by visual inspection, bulb sprouting loss appraised. The results
showed that the selected storage design properties affected the mean internal temperature
and relative humidity of the cribs and the mean percent sprouting of stored onion. The
highest mean temperature (31.38oC) was obtained in a rectangular crib, elevated at
500mm high above the ground and covered with brown fibre net. The lowest mean internal
temperature (25.07oC) was observed in a square crib, elevated at 1500mm high above the
ground and covered with grey fibre net. The highest mean internal relative humidity of
73.29% was obtained in a square crib, elevated at 500mm high above the ground and
covered with grey fibre net, while the lowest mean internal relative humidity of 62.05%
was recorded in a rectangular crib, elevated at 1500mm high above the ground and
covered with brown fibre net. The highest mean percent bulb sprouting (2.61%) was
recorded in a square crib, elevated at 1500mm high above the ground and covered with
grey fibre net, while the lowest percent mean bulb sprouting (1.5%) was observed in a
rectangular crib, elevated at 1500mm high above the ground and covered with brown fibre
net. The results suggest that the use of rectangular storage structures, elevated at
1000mm high above ground and covered with dark cover materials will minimize bulb
sprouting losses in stored onion.
Keywords: Storage cribs, natural ventilation, sprouting loss, str

Published: 07/03/2017

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 18, Number 3, September 2017 100 - 106

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Demand Analysis of Rice in Nigeria

By S.a. Makama, I.y. Ilu, N.j. Suleiman, S. Isiaku And M.a. Isah

The study attempted to estimate demand for rice in Nigeria using Almost Ideal Demand
System, (AIDS) model. The results revealed that expenditure elasticities for rice in Nigeria
was income inelastic thus implying that it is a normal good, and a necessity in the diet of
Nigerians. All the own- compensated price elasticities were negative and greater than their
corresponding uncompensated price elasticities in the country, implying that substitution
effect is stronger than the income effect. The compensated elasticity of rice in Nigeria (-
0.554) indicates that, a price increase of 1 per cent will cause a reduction in the demand
for rice by 0.55 per cent. Considering the fact that rice has inelastic responses to its own
price and income changes, efforts in increasing its supply should be made so as to
enhance the demand for rice. Also, since rice was found to be a necessity in the diet of
Nigerians, it is therefore recommended that rice as a core crop should be given priority in
the country’s National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) and many other similar
government programmes.

Published: 09/03/2017

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 18, Number 3, September 2017 pp 71 - 75

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Participatory Communication Strategies for Improved Youth Participation in Agricultural Development Interventions in Nigeria

By Ismail F.o., Ilu I.y. And Galadima S.a.

Social assistance interventions in agriculture are intended to improve people’s wellbeing. The youths are expected to participate in large numbers in such programmes
because of their large population and strategic position in national census and
development plans. For many years, that objective is undermined by the low level of
youth participation in agriculture in Nigeria. Reasons for this abysmal result include
inertia, low level of information and application’s “hassle” associated with application
procedures. In this study, 225 young graduates from the 36 states and the Federal
Capital Territory of Nigeria were sampled out of the 400 that participated in a national
agricultural extension and advisory training conducted by NAERLS in 2013.
Participation was voluntary. The training register was used to ascertain participants’
state of origin. Twenty-five interviews were conducted, while 200 copies of
questionnaire were administered: but 196 copies were returned. Data were analysed
using percentages. It was found that differences in the take-up rates of agricultural
development interventions by the Nigerian youths could be influenced positively by
external attributes like access to information, state of origin, type of degree and the
national youth service completion. The study recommended that agencies, donors and
policymakers accept full responsibility for the existence of the external barriers to youth
participation while devising responsive ways to communicate same appropriately. This
study establishes how barriers to youth participation in agriculture can be reduced
using participatory communication strategies.

Published: 03/02/2018

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 19, Number 1, March 2018 Pp 40-48

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Communication Barriers to Uptake of Agricultural Innovations among Farmers in NAERLS Adopted Villages, Nigeria

By G.i. Onagwa,1 S. Abah2 And E. Jegede2

In 2005, the Federal Government, through the Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria,
directed all agricultural research institutes to establish adopted villages as first-contact
laboratories for the uptake of agricultural innovations. In 2008, the government declared a
state of emergency on the sector, citing, among others, very poor level of uptake of
technologies by farmers as justification for that position. This study, therefore, examined the
communication barriers to the uptake of agricultural technologies in NAERLS adopted
villages. It was a case study, which used quantitative method of enquiring to study a sample
of 102 subjects, comprising farmers, field extension agents and extension communication
specialists of NAERLS. The instrument of data gathering was questionnaire. The data were
analysed using statistical tools of percentage, mean and weighted mean. The result showed,
among others, that the most significant communication barriers to technology adoption were
‘farmers exclusion from message design, innovation’s disregard for farmers’ cultural values,
and farmers distrust for government’s intentions; which all had weighted mean of 2.5. Also,
there was higher presence of communication barriers in Nwogi village than Tudun Iya and
Okolo villages. Moreover, all the barrier items listed were found to be jointly significant in
negatively affecting uptake of agricultural technologies in the study locations. It was
recommended, therefore, that NAERLS should design and deploy a people-centred, marketdriven
communication strategy that would be responsive to farmers’ felt needs at the study

Published: 09/03/2017

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 18, Number 3, September 2017, page 77 -85

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Multidimensional Poverty Index of Rice Farming Households in Northern Nigeria: Estimation and Policy Implications

By Usman S

This study was aimed at estimating the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) of rice
farming households in the northern part of Nigeria using the recent method developed
by Alkire and Foster. The data for the study were collected through multistage sampling
procedure from 199 rice farmers in the three major rice producing systems in Nigeria.
The analysis was performed on ten indicators relating to three vital domains of
wellbeing: health, education and standard of living. A recently written STATA command
‘mpi’ that allows collation of rice farming households’ deprivation indicators into policy
domains was used for the analysis. The results revealed that over 82% of rice farming
households fall below the poverty line. Disaggregated results into rice farming systems
subgroups showed higher multidimensional poverty in lowland rice farming households,
followed by upland and then the irrigated system households. Access to general
hospital and nutrition and children’s enrolment in school were found to be three major
indicators contributing to multidimensional poverty among the households. The youths
whose ages were less than 46 years were the most multi-dimensionally poor farmers in
the rice farming systems. Therefore, anti-poverty policies that reduce households’
deprivations in accessing health and education indicators, specifically targeting the
youth, are likely to be more effective in reducing poverty among rice farmers. Liberating
rice farmers from the simultaneous deprivations they are experiencing could contribute
immensely to achieving accelerated rice self-sufficiency in Nigeria.

Published: 03/02/2018

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 19, Number 1, March 2018 page 83-90

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Maize farmers, improved technology, accessibility

By A.o. Lawal, D. Baba And A.a. Wahab

The low agricultural productivity in Nigerian economy can be attributed to poor extension
delivery. An overview of the major role and challenges of extension in improving
agricultural productivity in Nigerian economy is presented in this paper. In-depth review of
the literature was used to discuss the history of agricultural extension in Nigeria. Major
contributions of agricultural extension were identified and explained. Major challenges to
effective extension delivery in improving agricultural productivity were also discussed,
while possible solutions were preferred. Lack of legislated policy remains the most
challenging issue limiting the contribution of extension delivery. Lastly, critical issues at
ensuring sustainability of agricultural extension programmes were discussed to serve as a
guide for the new road map as contained in the agricultural promotion policy (APP). This
paper concludes that proper implementation of the APP document will lead to improved
agricultural productivity. It is recommended that the key issues identified in this paper
should be given priority attention while implementing the agricultural promotion policy.

Published: 09/03/2017

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 18, Number 3, September 2017 page 53 -60

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Knowledge Level and Poultry Farmers’ Perception on Poultry Management Practices in Niger State, Nigeria

By Tsado J.h., Tyabo I.s., Muhammed Y., Fatoki P. And Rilwan M.

This study was conducted in Niger State, Nigeria to determine the knowledge level and
poultry farmers’ perception on improved poultry farming practices. Multi-stage sampling
technique was employed to sample 120 poultry farmers used in this study. Data
collected Data were collected through structured questionnaire complimented with
interview schedule and analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics such
as ordinary least square regression. Based on the findings of this study, majority
(82.5%) of the respondents were still in their active and productive age (ie, between 21 –
30 years), with mean age of 35 years; less than half (45.8%) of the respondents
acquired formal education, with a mean of 6 years of schooling. Majority (66.7%) were
small–scale farmers with an average 657 number of birds. Farmers’ knowledge level in
terms of de–beaking, vaccination, de–worming, feeding and feed formulation, watering,
transportation, record keeping, finance management and medication were found to be
high based on their mean score values, while knowledge level of culling, waste
disposal, egg picking, packaging and marketing, bio–security principles were found to
be low. Poultry famers however, perceived all aspects of management practices training
received as relevant. The regression analysis revealed R2 value of 0.876 as cost of
medication/vaccine, quantity of feed, depreciation on capital items and access to credit
had t–value of -3.395, -11.582, 2.543, and 2.218, respectively and were found to have
significant effect on the income of poultry farmers. The respondents’ indicated that
unavailability of market ( =3.93), poor power supply ( =3.63), long distance to poultry
farm ( =3.25) and poor access to credit ( =3.20) constitute the serious constraints faced
by the poultry farmers. It was therefore recommended that training of poultry farmers
on different aspect of poultry management practices should be given adequate priority
in enhancing increase poultry production.

Published: 03/02/2018

Tags: Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 19, Number 1, March 2018. page 32-39

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