Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) belongs to the dicotyledons family of plants known as Curcerbitacesea- (Gourd family) It is a times called "Oyster nut" or '
Cocoa is an economic tree crop with various industrial uses. Cocoa beans are used in the manufacture of cocoa butter, Bournvita, Milo, Chocolate, ice cream, soft drinks, pharmaceutical and food preparations. Cocoa is also a very important cash crop through which much foreign exchange is earned. The current production of the crop in Nigeria is estimated at 150,000 metric tonnes on an area of about 550,000 hectares and only about 20% are of improved varieties. The remaining ones are old and unimproved varieties which need to be replanted. This guide is produced with a view to acquaint the farmer with the current information on production practices.
Cassava (Manihot Spp.)" is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Euphobiacea. It is native to tropical America with the probable centre of origin in
North East Brazil or Central America. The Portuguese explorers of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced cassava to other parts of the world. Cassava was
introduced at a number of points along· the West Africa coast. Introductions were at Warri, Yenagoa, Calabar and Owerri.
Cashew is one of the crops selected for the National Accelerated Industrial Crop Production Programme (NAICPP).The NAICPP is a Federal Government's
programme designed to boost the production of industrial and cash crops in the country. Cashew is a food crop; cashew is a cash crop and an industrial crop. This Guide is prepared to enable you grow the tree crop successfully and profitably.
Soybean milk is a refreshing and nutritious drink. It is easy to prepare and costs very little when compared with animal milk. Drink the soybean milk with a likttle sugar or make enrched milk pap, tofu, cheese or yoghurt.
Vegetables are classified under three major groups. These are:
-Roots and tabers Potato, Onion, Carrot etc.
-Leafy green vegetables - Spinach, bitter leaf, lettuce rossale, kenaf, ugwu etc.
-Fruit Vegetables - tomatoes, Okra, pepper, garden eggs, green beans etc.
Soybean flour has high value vegetable protein that complements all cereals.
About 5 percent soybean flour may be added to bread recipes without adversely affecting their baking characteristics. Soybean flour combines protein with the largely carbohydrate content of bread and makes it more nutritious and comparable to the quality of protein in milk or meat. It does not impair grain or loaf volume; neither the texture nor crumb colour. The flour has a moisture retaining property which enhances eating quality through improved tenderness.
Feeding livestock on the farm often involves the use of different types of of feeds such as,hay (long or chopped,silage,grains ( whole or cracked),cakes (ground or pellets) and minerals.In the majority of cases, for cattle, sheep,goats and horses,foughage is fed sepaterly;
When a buyer purchases. a piece of machinery he expects that the machine will be used for a number of years. This period of use is referred to as the useful
life of the machine. To obtain the maximum useful life and therefore the maximum economy the machinery must be properly maintained and cared for. In other words it must be protected. If this happens, a longer trouble-free life can be expected. Less money is required to replace and repair existing machines because present machines last longer. The money saved can then be put to other productive uses.
The oil palm is one of the cash crops actively being promoted under the National Accelerated Industrial Crop Production Programme (NAICPP). The oil palm provides food, raw materials for the manufacture of soap, margarine, candle, confectioneries, ice-cream, detergents and timber. Every portion of the tree crop is useable. Nigeria at a time controlled about 50% (in 1953) of the world export in palm produce. But the export figure has declined over the years to the extent that the country now runs annual deficit of about 250,000 tones. The Federal Government is determined under the NAICPP to reverse the trend. The purpose of this Guide is to provide basic information on production that will help the farmer produce the crop much more successfully and restore the crop to its past glory.
Millet is one of the most important cereal crops widely cultivated in Northern parts of Nigeria. It is an early maturing (80 -100 days) crop that is more adapted to drier conditions and low soil fertility than sorghum. It is planted by farmers with the first rains. The grains are usually consumed as tuwo or fura or koko in the North and in many other ways depending on the local dietery habits of the people. The crop is also used for livestock feed as well as for brewing local drinks (Burkutu) and recently in modern brewing industries.
By having a working knowledge of farm measurement, the Agricultural Extension worker can provide valuable assistance and services that the farmers require. Suppose a farmers comes to you as an Extension worker to seek advice on how to buy fertilizer for his field of ground nuts and fertilizer them according to the Recommended Practices. The farmer's problem is that he doesn't know how much fertilizer to buy. Extension's recommendations per hectare are in Kg per hectare (pounds per acre), but the farmer doesn't know what hectare (acre) is nor has he any idea of how many hectares (acres) he might have.
The cultivation of wheat in Nigeria dates back to the 18th century, probably on small scale. The ban on the importation of wheat in Nigeria, effective from
January, 1987 by the Federal Government stimulated increase in local production under irrigation and as a rain-fed crop. The increase in area of
cultivation is bound to result in building of pest and disease. Pests and diseases
are some of the most important constraints to wheat production worldwide.
In the USA, losses due to pests and diseases is reported to be about 10%
while it is about 25-30% in the ''Near East". The yield losses in Nigeria has
not been properly documented but are found whenever wheat is grown and
could be as high as 10%.
Abortion can be termed as the expulsion from the uterus of a living or dead foetus (young animal in the womb) before it is delivered after reaching normal pregnancy period. The annual loss in cattle due to abortions and infertility (inability to conceive or be conceived) are enormous. This situation is even more disturbing considering the fact that there is a shortage of qualified staff and equipment necessary for the diagnosis of the causes of abortions and infertility. Actual abortions are usually only a fraction of the total losses due to abortion diseases. The greater majority of losses are due to undetected pregnancy failures, infertility and deaths of foetuses during pregnancy.
The maintenance of any spraying machine in good working order is very important both for successful post control by spraying and also for extending the life of the machine. Spray materials are expensive . The application of too little spray does no good and an excessive application is a waste of money. When a spraying machine is difficult to use, or is not working properly, its maintenance rather than its design or construction is most likely to be at fault. This guide has been prepared so that the extension worker becomes thoroughly familiar with the Falcon sprayer maintenance and repair.