Kola does well in forest soils. Savannah areas of forest outliners are
suitable provided there is adequate moisture in the rooting zone and the soil has high organic matter content. Kola roots do not stand flooding, so good drainage is essential.
The grapevine was introduced in Nigeria by Haj Pilgrims from the Middle East and Christian Missionaries from Europe. Hitherto, the growing of grapevine was confined to a few stands around
the backyards and some vegetable gardens with little or no success due to lack of know-how of its cultivation.
Ginger is native to South East Asia. It arrived Nigeria in 1927 and its cultivation started around Kwoi, Kubacha,Kafanchana and Kagoro of Southern Kaduna and around the neighbouring parts of Plateau and Nasarawa States. In recent times, ginger cultivation has been introduced into the South Eastern and South-Western agricultural zones of Nigeria.
A rich deep loam will be ideal. Citrus trees will however survive and do rather well in soils too shallow and poorly aerated for avocado trees to survive. On the other hand citrus trees may be badly injured in soils a little more shallow and wet where mango trees would thrive.
Cassava is one of the most popular Nigeria stapple food crops from which "Gari" is made. This "Gari" produced from the cassava roots, is the cheapest carbohydrate or energy-giving food source nick-named "the poor mans food".
On the surface of any land there are always points of equal elevations. A line through such point usually cuts across the visible slope of the land and is known as contour line.
There are a number or field activities that require the determination
of levels of various points in the field . Where accurate and wide
ranging levels are required, then instruments that can read grauuated staff accurately will be required. Various types of engineering levels and theodelites with telescopic lenses have been developed for such purposes. These instruments are, however, pretty sophisticated and expensive
On the surface of any land there are always points of equal elevations. A line through such points usually cuts across the visible slope of the land and is known as contour line. When farming operations, particularly ridging is carried out along the lines or contours of the land, the entire activity is referred to as contour farming.
In the performance of his duties the extension worker is often called upon to determine the area of a piece of land. Crop yields, seeding and fertilizer rates, and many other items cannot be calculated unless the area is known or determined. One simple method of mapping a field is by using an improvised plane table (any flat surface). The method is quick, requires a minimum of equipment, and is fairly accurate.
Hygiene refers to conditions or practices that establish and maintain health. A healthy body is a valuable asset and essential to comfortable I ife. It is more tolerant to diseases than an unhealthy body. In order to establish and maintain a healthy body, certain practices are very essential. These practices include bathing and keeping our body parts clean, keeping dresses and the environment we live clean. They also include keep~ng · water, food and home utensils very clean at all time.
A ~t majority of plant parasitic nematodes are small wannlike animals ranging from 0.5 mm. to about 2 mm. long. Jn certain highly specialised forms. the female body may be greatly modified to as.cume a nearly spherical shape.
Worms are living things which during all or part of their lives
live at the expense of another, called hosts, causing it some
damage but not necessarily destroying it. Generally, worms
have privilege habitats within their hosts such as intestine,
live, muscle, blood etc. Some worms are called "specific
worms" because they develop only within certain species.
Example is worm called stongyes that lives in the stomach of
sheep. Some other in specific organ such as liver flukes in the
liver of cow.
In order to establish and maintain healthy growth in
anim21ls, cer tain pr21ctices 21re very essential. These practices
include the control of worms, vaccination, sanitary hygiene,
routine clinical checks. Sanitary hygiene, in Farm animals
include keeping the animals body clean, proving clean and
balance feed, and water, providing clean housing environment
and pens. It also include keeping farm utensils clean at
all times. This guide will teach farmers and animal attendants
about how to view and carry out these practices more
For best yields of yam, loose, deep, well-drained soils of sandy
loam type are recommended. RK~y~-Fadama" soil, practice
Although melons thrive on a variety of sells, they do best and are earlier on a sandy- loam soil, natul"ally well-drained. Acid soils are not sui- . table to the production of melons
Spodoptera exempta is a noctuid moth and its larvac, which are often known as army worms are a great pest of upland rice, maize, millet, wheat and other crops in the northern states of Nigeria.