Extension Bulletin


Uncategorized (124)


By National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Irrigation to many people means the construction of large scale storage dams and the building of canals to deliver the water. This is only half the job of irrigation. The land must be prepared to receive the water before efficient irrigation can be accomplished. Attempting to irrigate land with an uneven surface results in low efficiency of water use, soil erosion, excessive labour requirements, low crop yields, and drainage problems which can result in salinisation of the soil (Figure 1). The application of water by swface irrigation methods requires that land be smoothed so that water can be controlled as it flows across the fields. Soil is moved from high spots to low spots to provide
more uniform plane on the surface of the land. This is commonly known as land forming or land levelling.

Published: 13/08/1977

Size: 6.82MB


By Naerls

Land is one of the limiting factors to increase in food production in Nigeria. With a relatively high annual population growth, a farming system which would ensure a corresponding increase in food, wood and livestock production is highly desirable.

Published: 06/07/2012

Size: 5.25MB

Poultry Farmer's Handbook of Disease Prevention (Extension Bulletin No. 28, Poultry Series No. 3)

By National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Loss due to diseases is one of the greatest threats to a profitable poultry enterprise. While a farmer keeping a few birds on range around the house may not experience what one may consider a serious loss, a farmer raising a sizeable number of birds ranging from hundreds to thousands must as of necessity maintain a healthy flock since the risk from disease becomes increasingly high.
There are more chances of disease spread especially when birds are raised together in large numbers in a closed environment. Therefore the need arises for a carefully planned health programme. This will include all aspects of management to prevent or minimize the exposure of birds to diseases and also to minimize the effects of diseases when they occur.

Published: 13/11/1986

Size: 6.07MB

Planning Dry Season Feed Reserve for Ruminant Livestock (Extension Bulletin No. 44, Livestock Series No. 6)

By National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

The obvious reason for planning for feed reserve is to maintain livestock against weight loss particularly during the dry season when feed is scarce. For maintenance and production, livestock not only requires feed continuously at fairly regular intervals but such food must provide the animal with the nutrients necessary for growth and production. About 60% of the food an animal is able to eat is required for such functions as body maintenance, metabolism, circulation of blood, respiration and reproduction. Liveweight gains and profits from livestock for the owner depend on the feed available for an animal to eat over and above the amount required for maintenance purposes. Thus good feeding is important for profitable returns from livestock.

Published: 24/03/1989

Size: 5.86MB

Planning and Conducting Agricultural Shows in Northern States of Nigeria (Extension Bulletin No. 9)

By National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

The ultimate purpose of Agricultural shows is to make better farmers
out of our farming populace. This is achieved in various ways; namely :
(a) The show affords the farmers the opportunity to compare their produce with those of others and this creates the spirit of competition.
(b) Farmers meet one another to discuss common problems and share experiences.
(c) By contacts with Agricultural Extension staff and Commercial personnel, the farmer can ┬Ěhave some of the questions about his occupation answered : e.g. farmers can learn where certain fungicides and poultry breeds can be obtained etc.
{f) Farmers can make new friends and perhaps some .sort of cooperative venture can result from such acquaintances and resultant associations.
(g) Farmers get the opportunity not only for social interaction with other farmers but also to meet their leaders in Government, Local Government Authorities and Communities. The presence of our leaders at Agricultural Shows is trot only a. singular honour but also a morale booster to the farmers.
(h) Farmers have chance to see the latest development in agriculture.
This booklet concerns its.elf with the essentials and leaves the details
open so as to give room for local peculiarities in the organisation of agricultural

Published: 17/06/1999

Size: 3.70MB

Pine Production in Nigeria (Extension Bulletin)

By R.a. Gbadegesin, J. O. Adegbehin, et al

The need to produce tree species of promising fibre length to meet the demand of wood industries all over the world including Nigeria, has been recognized. This need calls for the intensification of efforts of the Nigeria Forestry Services to convert large areas of less productive harwood forest into plantations of exotic soft wood especially Pinus ssp.

Published: 09/12/1999

Size: 3.59MB


By Naerls

Information through video programme is suitable
for acheieving a number of important goals in
agriculture. This medium of communication has
an affinity to all the other mass media because it
synchronises the different message systems used
by the other media. Meaning is expressed through
depth, perspective, shapes, valence (intensity of
meaningful parts), form and content. In addition
there is the use of speech, and graphics. These
message systems are synthesized to show a view of
life which is reflective of total environment. Sound
and print images can also be associated with a whole
environment, but in radio the voice is still divoiced
from the environment. Neither print nor radio
media can the same degree of immediacy as
live televisiC>rrtfansmission. Television can be easily
co-ordinated with other media to disperse information
as widely as possible and supplement the
work of health field worker, thus stimulating a two way

Published: 07/01/1998

Size: 5.75MB

Minisett Technique on Seed Yam Production (Extension Bulletin 112)

By National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

The natural habitat of yam is the humid forest area. Since ever
going into cultivation, the yam ecological zone has extended to the derived
savanna zone of the tropics. Nigeria is a major yam growing country
producing about 75 to 80% of total world yam Yam is so important in the
Nigerian diet that it constitutes about 20% of the daily caloric intake of
Nigerians ..
The major problems encountered in yam production are: high
cost of seed yams (propagation materials), high cost of stakes and staking,
weeds and storage. Seed yams alone constitute over 40% of the capital
outlay in yam production in Nigeria. The yield expected from the yam
crop is hardly more than 4 times the weight of"seed yams" or ''yam setts"

Published: 17/06/1999

Size: 1.26MB

Management and Control of Common Diseases of Monogastric Rabbits and Pigs Bulletin

By National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Like all animals, rabbits require proper care if they are to
(re)produce well. Before going to sleep at night, as well as in
the day, the farmer should keep a close eye on them. It is not
enough to see that the animal is sick, one should learn to see
whether the animal will be sick; it is not enough to see that the
doe has made a nest and kindled, one should know before hand
that she will make a nest and kindle. Animals have no holidays
even on Christmas Eve they need feed, they will kindle during
Easter week or they may get sick during Ramadan.

Published: 08/12/1999

Size: 3.86MB


By National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

The general signs of sickness are well known to shepherds. It is
said that a bad shepherd does not notice when an animal is ill, a moderate
Shepherd notices when it is ill, and a good shepherd can tell when animals
are going to be ill tomorrow. A sick animal will be noticed as it differs or
behaves differently from the rest of the herd. It is often alone, and may lie
down while the others are grazing or it may stand with its head down
when the others are lying down. A sick animal usually does not eat neither
does it chew its cud.

Published: 17/10/2005

Size: 4.54MB


By Naerls

In the olden days, every family strives to attain self-sufficiency and
self-sustainability. Food and fiber were produced and consumed by
the family. Family members build their houses, through communal
efforts, but with no monetary reward attached to the efforts. Every
family is it's own producer and consumer. Production was essentially
for subsistence. As human development progresses, the need
for specialization became eminent. It was evident, that some people
are better adapted to one trade than others. At the same time human
needs for shelter, food, clothing, mobility and a host of others took
greater dimensions of importance.
People then began to abandon farming and specialize in other trades.
Goods and services were conveniently exchanged on batter among
neighbours. As specialization progressed, modernization and industrialization
assumed greater importance in economic development.
More people left food and fiber production and took on specialized
job. Urban centers and cities continue to expand and others
sprang up. This development led to more demand for increased agricultural
output, but at the same time, breaking down the self-sufficiency
of the traditional family units.

Published: 05/06/2012

Size: 5.85MB

Major Pests and Diseases of Wheat in Nigeria and their Control, 1999 (Extension Bulletin)

By National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

The cultivation of wheat in Nigeria dates back to the 18┬░' century, probably
on small scale. The ban on the importation of wheat in Nigeria, effective
from January, 1987 by the Federal Government stimulated increase
in local production under irrigation and as a rain-fed crop. The
increase in area of cultivation is bound to result in building of pest and
Ji sease. Pests and diseases are some of the most important constraints to
wheat production worldwide. In the USA, losses due to pests and diseases
is reported to be about 10% while it is about 25-30% in the "Near
East". The yield losses in Nigeria has not been properly documented but
are found whenever wheat is grown and could be as high as 1 0%.

Published: 13/06/1999

Size: 1.92MB


By Sani Y. A., I. J. Samba, et al

Mango (magnifera indica L.) is one of the most important
tropical and subtropical fruit in the world and is popular both in the
fresh and the processed form. It is commercially grown in more than
80 countries with India as leading nation. They are excellent sources
of vitamin A and C. Establishment of mango orchard is a long term
investment and trees continue to produce fruit for longer years than
many other fru its crops, thus its' planting requires proper planning
which includes careful selection of site, maintenance and ca re for
profitable return through high production of quality fruits.

Published: 07/08/2012

Size: 4.21MB


By Onyibe J.e., B.m. Sani, et al

Maize is a major cereal and one of the most important food ,
feed and industrial crops in Nigeria. It is the most dominant grain
crop in the savrumah zones. In the forest best it is commonly a ten as
fresh vegetable and it is cultivated twice in a year. It has become an
important irrigated crop and increasingly being used as a coping
strategy against the ever worsening climatic anomalies throughout
the country '. Over fifty million farmers grow maize every year
while over ninety million people arc employed in its processing ru1d
usage daily. It provides energy, vitamins and some amount of
protein. The livestock industry consumes more than half of the
total rumual maize production. The establishment of Arable Crops
Marketing and Development Company (ACMDC) under the food
security programme, aimed at the reactivation of the strategic
grain reserve scheme offer considerable promise for organized
trade on maize grains. The (ACMDC) is currently building thirtythree
silo complexes to procure and release grains to stabilize
price and maintain national food security stock. Maize is one of
the prime commodity of the new company. Already, Government
has a commented minimum price (GMP) for most grains including

Published: 06/07/2012

Size: 3.38MB


By Sani Y. A., I. J. Sambo, et al

The guava (Psidiumguajava) is one of the distributed
fruit tree crop in the tropics and subtropics, and found to be
indigenous to the American tropics. In Nigeria they are found
both across the savanna and rainforest ecological zones. The
ripe juicy sweet guavas are eaten fresh, as dessert. It can
also be utilized in many ways for makingjam,jellies,juices
etc. Guavas are among super fruits, being rich in dietary
fiber, vitamin A, C, folic acid and dietary minerals, potassium,
Copper, Manganese. All parts ofthe guava tree have potential
medicinal usefulness properties.

Published: 06/07/2012

Size: 5.11MB