The expansion and development of irrigation agriculture to an enviable position could be achieved not only by tapping the surface water resources (steams, rivers, reserviors, lakes, etc.), but also the ground water resources through the use of wells. The tubewell and washbore irrigation technologies were, therefore, timely and relevant. Since water lifting devices are integral parts of these
technologies, motorised petrol pumps were introduced and became very popular and easily identified with this technology. These pumps have been effectively used to lift water for small scale irrigation development with a lot of success.
The way and manner live fish are transported is a very important aspect offish culture. In most cases, fries (freshly hatched and baby fish) and fingerlings (few weeks old baby fish) must be transported from hatchery to pond for stocking. Brood fish (sexually mature fish selected for reproduction) are sometimes transported into the hatchery to spawn. Spawning is the act of depositing eggs and producing young fish. It may even be necessary to transport live harvested fish to the market for sale. A fish farmer must be very familiar with the principles, techniques and practices offish transportation so as to minimize fish death resulting from transportation. The ultimate aim of transportation is to provide healthy live fish at the destination. When a fish farmer or a live fish transporter
obeys the principles and practices of transportation, risks resulting to death offish will be reduced and by implication there will be less financial losses in the business.
The treadle pump is a simple but remarkable human-powered pump that was designed for small-scale irrigation. Even though it is manually operated, it has such a versatility and efficiency that is comparable to the motorised irrigation pumps. The treadle pump can be produced locally in most parts of Nigeria
with materials that are locally available. Its human energy requirement, though a major disadvantage, is nonetheless more than compensated for by its great advantages in terms of affordability by small-scale farmers, availability when it becomes widely fabricated and ease of maintenance. The fact that it can
draw water from virtually all the water sources where the motorised and centrifugal pumps can draw water from, makes it particularly relevant to Fadama irrigation farmers many of whom now draw their water from tubewells and wash-bores in addition to streams and ponds.
As a modi£ cation of an intensive system of animal production,
fattening of bulls and rams in a feedlot is one of the
best options of increasing animal protein supply. Meat production
from cattle and sheep and even goats in Nigeria is almost
entirely extensive with low input. This traditional method of
domestic meat animal production results in low productivity
due to the fact that animals receive the bulk of their nutrition
from overgrazed ranges which are poor in quality. Furthermore
the size of such ranges is declining due to their use for
industries including new agricultural development projects devoted
to especially crop production. The traditional system of
meat animal production cannot thus be expected to meet the
future demand for beef and mutton in particular and animal
protein in general. As an economic way of feeding young cattle
and sheep whereby the yield of edible carcass is increased by
30-40 percent during a short period fattening offers a rapid
means for enhancing productivity.
Irish potato is a cold loving drop. High temperatures encourage vegetative growth whereas low temperatures are more conducive to tuber growth.
Temperature higher than 250c are unfavourable to tuber production. Economic tuber production occurs when average night temperature falls below 150c. It
is not only the temperature that is important, the difference between the maximum and minimum is even more so. Regions with maximum temperatures as high as 3o0c and minimum of about 150c are much better for potato growing than regions with temperatures that are fairly constant at around 250c. This is the reason why it is possible to grow potato in areas around Zaria, Kano, Sokoto, Borno and Bauchi, during the harmattan months as well as in Jos, Biu, and
Mambilla Plateaus where the temperatures are sufficiently low all the year round.
A wide range of sorghum varieties is grown in Nigeria and the crop is known as guineacorn. In Nigerian annual production of guineacorn is estimated at over three million metric tons of grain. Guineacorn is used essentially for human consumption and provides the staple food for most of the population, particularly in the ecological zones most suited for its cultivation. Its utilization in the food and beverage industries is growing very fast.
Locusts are one of man's oldest enemies and have been responsible for untold miseries, starvation and famine since time memorial. Locusts are gluttons and will devour almost anything green. A locust can consume as much as its weight or more in a day. A large swarm could eat as much foliage as a herd of 800,000 elephants. Further, when swarming adults settle on trees their sheer weight breaks down branches.
Groundnut oil is one of the many vegetable oils produced in Nigeria. Other sources of vegetable oils are oil palm fruits, cotton seed cake, palm kernel and shea-nut. Groundnut oil is principally consumed for food, soup preparation and soap making. Survey showed that groundnut oil is primarily produced by rural women processors who expend a lot of energy and time to extract little quantities using primitive tools. This situation has contributed measurably to the problem of inadequate vegetable oil supply in the country. Investigation reveals that efforts are on to produce improved oil processing technologies suitable /adaptable for the use of local processors. This bulletin aims at reporting some of the results of research efforts and it is hoped that it will stimulate interest in the use of the machines as well not only increase the production potentials of the processors but the availability of groundnut oil in the country.
Since the 1920's when rice research began in lbadan, the popularity of rice as a food crop has been growing in Nigeria. In the last two decades, it has graduated from a ceremonial food crop to a staple food in many Nigerian homes. Rice is an annual crop maturing between 90 and 120 days depending on the variety. In Nigeria, it is grown in all parts of the country with favourable conditions right from the swamps in the forest zone in the South to the Fadama areas in the semi-arid zones of the North. Fortunately there are the upland and lowland varieties which differ in their water and climatic requirements and which fit perfectly into these different ecological zones. The word, paddy, is used to refer to the rice crop while it is growing on the field, to the rice panicles after harvesting, to the threshed rice grains and in fact to the rice once it has not been removed from the kernels otherwise known as the husks.
Risks and Uncertainties are important phenomena in farming. This is because the short and long term positions of the farm are under the influence of exogenous variables. Variations in yield could be as a result of outright crop failure due to drought. pests and disease attack. Price fluctuations could also result due to new government policy measures. farmers could fall ill. All these means that a
farmer does not know in advance with certainty what his output will look like. Non-availability of Input. labour and machinery could result on the farm. Technologies could change without any warning to the farmer and this has implications for his productivity on the farm.
Snail meat commonly known as "Congo meat" is one of the most popular delicacies in Nigeria. Snails are one of the commonest sources of animal protein in Southern Nigeria where the ecosystem favours their continued existence.
The meat is high in protein (12 - 16%) and Iron (45- 50 mg/kg); low in fat (0.05- 0.08%) and contains almost all the amino acids needed for human nutrition.
Ordinarily, in Nigeria, snails are collected from the wild. Wild snail population have considerably declined because of human activities such as: deforestation, pesticide use, slash and burn agriculture, bush fires and collection of snails before they have reached maturity.
There is probably no other occupation about which non-patti·
cipants know so little as is the case with bee keeping. Often too, the little they
know tends to be partly true. For this, folklore and the popular press ar~
largely responsible. The local press has given undue stress on facts about bee
keeping which are far from their explanatory context.
There is also the fact that in some countries, particularly in Europe where
there is a large number of amateur bee keepers there is a tendency to treat the
honey bee with extra admiration rather than treat it as a tool used for the production
This pamphlet is not designed to tell the complete story of bees and bee
keeping. It is intended to explain the pattern of bee keeping in Northern
Nigeria and the Ministry of Agriculture's extension work in that field. In doing
this, it is necessary to include the natural history of the honey bee.
Snail meat commonly known as "Congo Meat" is one of the most popular delicacies in Nigeria. Snails are one of the commonest sources of animal protein in Southern Nigeria where the ecosystem favours their continued existence.
The use of improved seeds is now recognised as one of the vital inputs required to achieve increased crop production. At moment only a small fraction of Nigerian farmers have access to improved seed.
The use of improved seeds is now recognised as one of the vital inputs required to achieve increased crop production. At moment only a small fraction of Nigerian farmers have access to improved seed. Seed is a living input, subject to genetic transformations and death. This a fact which creates the need for special precautions, well defined procedures and control from the variety release until variety utilization by farmers. The primary aim of a sound seed production system is to ensure a dependable supply of high quality seeds of improved varieties for use by the majority of our farmers. This bulletin is intended to guide Extension Workers, prospective seed producers and any other interested groups on the act of seed production, processing and certification.