This bulletin is written to assist prospective and practicing fish farmers, and interested persons on the basics of how to identify good sites for pond construction. Fish farming can be profitable business, if the "rule of the game" are followed in its' management. The information contained in the bulletin is meant to lead people to interesting fish fanning through proper site selection
and construction of durable ponds and profitable enterprise.
A fish pond is a unique environment created by man. It must be managed
properly to achieve profitable production. Fish farmers in different countries
have increased fish yields in ponds by using inorganic and organic fertilizers
Microscopic green plants called algae or phyto-plankton form the base
of the food chain for fish. All green plants need light, proper temperature
and nutrients for growth. If sufficient light and proper temperature are
present, the nutrients in chemical fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorous, and
potassium) are readily assimilated by phytoplankton and their abundance
increases. Manures contain the same nutrient. The concern of every fish
farmer would therefore be how to ensure abundant production of natural
foods to meet the demands of the fish for maximum growth and production.
The type of soiI a fish pond is located in determines to a large extent pond
fertility, fish production and ease of management of a fish culture enterprise.
The field performance of recommended practices on crops is of interest
to a number of persons. For example:
(a) Extension workers wish to know by how much yields can be increased
if farmers adopt improved practices.
(b) Farmers with a knowledge of yield levels to expect when they use
improved practices will be in a better position to decide if to adopt
those practices. ·
(c) Planners want to know if there are yield di fferences between areas
when improved inputs are used_.
Fish food consists of natural food and artificial (supplementary)
feeds. When fish have balanced diet to eat, they grow fast and
stay healthy. In natural waters and well-fertilized ponds, microscopic
plants (phytoplankton), microscopic animals (zooplankton),
insects, crustaceans, copepods and molluscs are examples
of natural foods.
When natural foods are not available in sufficient quantity to provide
Farm planning is a process of preparation of an operational programme for a farm that will guarantee the conservation of land and
farm resources and the efficient use of production factors, The increasing farm income and the satisfaction of the farmer. In other farm planning is a process of allocating limited farm resources to alter needs in order to achieve the main objective of the farm business objective is usually that of profit maximization. Farm planning process takes into account first, the objectives oft
farm business; secondly, the limitations and possibilities of avail at resources; and finally, the different ways of combining available
resources to reach the objectives.
In the rural areas, urban slums and shanty towns, infants who do not
have access to their mother's milk fail to thrive and even survive. Despite
the overwhelming benefits of exclusive breastfeeding, available data
showed that only about 2% Nigerians exclusively breastfed their babies
for the first six months of life. The World Health Organisation (WHO)
had estimated that over one million children die annually and many impaired
for inadequate breastfeeding. In Nigeria and many other developing
countries, the infant mortality rate is about 95 in 1000 live births
(this is less than 8 in 1000 live births in developed countries); the under
five mortality rate is about 190 in 1000 live births (it is about 10 in 1000
live births in developed countries). Diarrhoea and malnutrition are the
major causes of these deaths.
The scope of future development in agriculture is limited only by the
necessity for mechanization to be economic. One of the objectives of
farm management of which mechanization management forms a part, is to
plan for maximum profit. This can only be achieved by mjnimjzing unit
cost of production. Calculating operation costs of farm machines will
give insight on how to control unit cost of production. A farmer often
needs to know what it will cost him to use a particular machine. In some
cases he may be considering changing from one type of machine in hand,
to an improved and more productive one, or at times he may wish to
know what the costs of using his own machine will be in comparison with
the cost of contract work. Operation costs are needed to gain informa6on
in which to base the different decisions.
Aquaculture (Fish Farming) is the art and science of controlled
rearing of fish in ponds, farms and in some instances
natural water bodies from hatchlings (freshly hatched·· fishes)
to matured size. Unlike fish lhat grow in natural water bodies
without human interference, in aquaculture feeoing, fertilization,
stocking combination , reproduction and harvesting
The domestic ducks are water-fowls. They are raised mainly in regions
ofhigh rainfall, deltas, riverine areas and coastal districts ofthetropics.
A number of advanced countries in temperate climates also keep ducks
in commercial quantities.
In Nigeria, local ducks are raised on free range along side with the
domestic chickens. Even though ducks are hardier and more resistant to
diseases and environmental hazards they are fewer than the chickens due
basically to cultural beliefs which tend to portray ducks as mystique birds.
However, development in research and technology has increasingly eliminated
these cultural barriers and enhanced productivity of the birds. Nigeria
can thus take advantage of the economic and nutritional benefits of ducks
to improve on the short fall in the animal protein supply in family diets.
Crop residues are post harvest roughage materials. These include
sorghum, millet, and maize stovers (stern with kaves): maize cob, maize
husk; groundnut, cowpea, cotton and soyabean haulms: groundnut and
cowpea shells. Generally crop residues are characterised by low nutrient
contents, low digestibility and poor voluntary consumption by ruminant
animals. These poor characteristics notwithstanding, investigations show
that the ability of ruminant animals (Cnrtle, Sheep and Goats) to survive
during the long dry season in the Savanna is facilitated by the consumption
of these farm residues. Besides the major ruminant livestock producing
areas of the Savanna are located within the largest grain growing zones. rhus
several million metric tonnes of crop residues, capable of feeding milli ons
of Cattle, Sheep and Goats are produced annually in the Northern States. A
proper utilization of the post-harvest farm residues will greatly assist in
providing adequate ruminant feed needs during the dry season. This bulle tin
discusses economically feasible recommendations on how to improve the
feeding value of crop residues and how to e~tirn
Prior to oil boom, cotton was one of the main sources of foreign
exchange in Nigeria (l.nd the cotton industry' was the second largest
empl oyer of labour after the public sector Cotton is the most imp01tant
of all other crops cultivated and its culti,·ation is not restri ctecl to the
northern savanna zones but has spread to the derived savanna areas of
K wara, Osun, Oyn. Ondo ctnd Edo States in the course of the last 20
years. Cotton production in Nigeria experienced some sharp decline which
posed some ~ erious constraints to the expanding cotton dependent
industries and Nigeria, once a major cotton exporting country, became a
Household pests include dangerous insects and other animals that live
in dirty surroundings. A worse because they feed on human food, they
can spread diseases. Besides, the spread of diseases, they spoil household
properties and make the environment filthy. Certain pests like
mosquitoes, lice and bed bugs live on human blood, some such as termites,
cockroaches and cloth moths destroy properties while others live
on human food as in the cases of rats, mice, sugar ants and silver fish.
Rats spread diseases that affect rna and animals. They eat ad destroy
food materials I the farm, homes, warehouses, factories ad restaurants.
Rats contaminate food which food which has then to be thrown away
as waste. Rats cause damage to wood work w ater pipes and many store
commodities from toilet paper to toilet soap, gnawing of electric cables
ad causing of fire and breakdown of power stations.
This booklet gives information on some major household pests ad how
to control them.
Basically groundnut is either eaten or cooked, roasted or pre
cessed for oil. Groundnut oil is in very high demand in Nigeria and ground
nut cake, a by-product of groundnut processing for oil is a very population
snack among the populace.
Groundnut oil, the most sought vegetable oil in Nigeria, is largely
1" udu ced by rural women processors. These women employ primitive
tools, which limit their capacity and yield and make their tasks arduous.
lh:search findings show that, of the six basic processes of ground nut oil
extraction (decortication, winnowing, roasting, grinding, kneading and
1 >~~..:ssing), roasting remains one of the most difficult tasks without ready
The need to produce tree species of promising fibre length to meet
the demand of wood industries all over the world including Nigeria, has
been recognized. This need calls for the intensification of efforts of the
Nigeria Forestry Services to convert large areas ofless productive harwood
~1na.s forest into plantations of exotic softwood especially Pinus spp. How-
-> ever, PinGs cannot survive or grow successfully in the field for a long
time without the association of appropriate mycorhizal fungi. In some
areas of the world where pines are indigenous, the tree seedlings get
naturally infected with appropriate fungi once the plants start to grow. In
areas where pines do not exist naturally, it becomes necessary to infect
them with appropriate fungi in order to ensure continuous growth. Pines
are required to blend the short fibre of other wood species e.g. Gmelina
spp. for good paper quality