Maize (Zea Mays L.) is believed to have originated at least 5,000 years ago in the highlands of Mexico, Peru, Ecuador and/or Bolivia because of the great biodiversity of nature forms found in this region. However, the precise origin of maize remains speculative and controversial. There is evidence that maize was introduced to Europe in 1492 by Columbia. It then spread to Africa through Europe.
The bran is the protective cover of the grain and has no nutritive value. The endosperm is the largest portion of the grain and its the living part of the grain. Both germ and aleurone portions of the grain are rich in vitamins. The germ portion contain thiamine, nicotinic acid and riboflavin (vit. B. Complex). The Aleurone is also rich in minerals and protein. Milling of grains cause losses of these nutrients this is so because. the nutritive portions of the grain are nearer to the outer portion of the grain and can easily be removed during milling. For this reason, milling of grains is discouraged.
Under the Training and Visit (T & V) extension system which is currently being used for extension delivery nationwide, the spheres and responsibilities of the core extension personnel are clearly specified at all levels. The core extension personnel comprises the Director of Extension (DOE). the Zonal Extension Officers (ZEOs), Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs). the Block Extension Supervisors (BESs). Block Extension Agents (BEAs) (WIA) and the Village Extension Agents (YEAs).
Food situation in Nigeria is grossly inadequate and most of the essential food items will continue to be deficit for quite sometime for many complex reasons. Some of the major reasons are the continuously increasing human population, the traditional system of agriculture and the huge storage losses. It is now quite clear that emphasis alone on the improvement of yields through development of high yielding varieties and the provision of agricultural inputs to farmers is incomplete. A serious back up with post-harvest conservation of foods. and
harvested products is required.
lresi gbigbin je ise ti o se pataki ni ile Nigeria nitori wiwulo iresi fun jije ati fun tita. Kosi ibikan ni ile Nigeria ti a ko ti le gbin iresi. Nitorina awon agbe ni lati mo ilana ti o peye fun iresi gbigbin.
The term "community development, might be defined as "encouraging a community to undertake, on its own initiative, the various steps necessary to enrich the life of the community both materially and spiritually''. It includes the whole range of development activities in the community e.g .in the field of agriculture by securing and encouraging the adoption of better methods of agricultural practices in the field of health, by promoting better sanitation and water supply, proper measures of hygiene and infant and maternity welfare~ in the field of education, by spreading literacy and adult education as well as the extension and improvement of schools for children; in the infrastructure development, by constructing roads, town halls, worshipping places, cementaries, etc. The term connotes that the people themselves exert their own efforts, joining with governmental and non-governmental authorities, to improve
their economic, social and cultural conditions of the community
The rampant migration of the Youths to the urban centers in search of better conditions of living has constituted serious problems such as the dwindling rural labour force, declining productivity in rural areas, and impowersation of rural house holds. In addition, the urban areas have to some extent been stretched beyond planned capacity. Moreover, job opportunities have become inadequate for rural-urban migrants leading to the struggle for economic survival and
social upheavel. The main solution to those problems therefore lies in identifying viable rural projects which the youths can undertake in order to raise their standard of living thereby entice them to remain in the rural areas.
The age- long question: "which came first, the chicken or the egg?" has never been a puzzle to Bible Scholars because we read in Genesis Chapter one that God created the birds first. It was the hens among the birds that laid the first eggs, which hatched into chicks. Eggs can he hatched in two ways- by natural incubation, which involves selling the eggs under a broody hen, and by artificial incubation, using an incubator. Nature's way of hatching eggs is satisfactory if only a few chicks arc desired. For only 25 or 30 chicks, two hens will be needed
to hatch and care for them. Obviously, this method is less expensive since it does not require the provision of an incubator. Although a good mother hen is the best incubator and hatcher of her eggs, the use of artificial incubators has been justified on many grounds: broodiness decreases egg production; hatching is seasonal with a hen; one hen can incubate only 15 eggs at a time: the hen requires more space per egg than the artificial incubator; and there is a greater risk of disease transmission from hen to egg under natural incubation. Thus, the poultry industry would never have reached its present level of development without a more rapid means of multiplying the species.
A wide range of sorghum varieties is grown in Nigeria and the crop is known as guineacorn. In Nigerian annual production of guineacorn is estimated at over three miIlion metric tons of grain. Guineacorn is used essentially for human consumption and provides the staple food for most of the population, particularly in the ecological zones most suited for its cultivation. Its utilization in the food and beverage industries is growing very fast.
Groundnut (Arachis hypognea. L). is a native of South America. It was introduced into Nigeria in the 16th century. The total hectarage planted to groundnuts throughout the world is over 22 million hectares per year. The leading
producers of groundnut are India, China, Nigeria, Senegal and the United States of America. In Nigeria, the leading producing states include Niger, Kano, Jigawa, Zamfara, Kebbi Sokoto, Katsina, Kaduna, Adamawa, Yobe Borno, Taraba, Plateau, Nasarawa, Bauchi, and Gombe. It is estimated that over 2 millions hectares are
planted to groundnut in Nigeria. Groundnut are mostly intercropped. Groundnut contains about 25% protein and 45 to 50% oil. The skins are high in vitamin B.
One of the most important industry rial cash and food crops in Nigeria is groundnut. It has a high oil ( 42 - 52 per cent) and protein (25 - 32 percent content. In Nigeria, it constitutes a principal source of protein and dietary oil for both subsistence farmers and urban dwellers. It also provides a significant source of cash income through sale of seed , dietary oil haulms. Groundnut has various uses: the kernels can be eaten fresh, boiled, dried or roasted. Most of the crop is crushed for oil and the residual cake is rich in protein and provides valuable human and livestock food. The haulms from which the poda have been picked are valuable livestock feed .
Increasing concern for sustainable soil productivity and ecological stability in relation to the use of chemical fertilizers have led to renewed interest in organic fertilizers such as compost, farmyard manure and green manure. Composts and farmyard manure have low and variable nutrient contents, the more readily available green manures therefore constitute an important potential source of soil productivity improvement. Trees, shrubs, cover crops, grain legumes, grasses, weeds, ferns and algae could all be used as green manure to provide inexpensive source of organic fertilizer for building up and maintaining soil organic matter and fertility. This bulletin will be useful to extension agents in teaching farmers the preparation and use of green manures.
Grasshopper are common agricultural pests. They feed on leaves and grains of millet, sorghum, maize, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruit trees, grasslands and vangelands. The variegated grasshoppers in particular can attack and cause total defoliation of cassava. The purpose of this bulletin is to provide a general and practical reference for Agricultural Extension workers who are often confronted with the problem of grasshopper control. The bulletin covers selected grasshopper species that cause problems on the field. Their characteristics, biology. habitats and host plants are discussed for the purpose of identification. Also, information on the cultural, physical and chemical control of the insect is adequately provided. It is hoped that the bulletin will prove
useful to the Agricultural Extension Agents, officials of Pest Control Departments in the field, vocational agricultural teachers and literate farmers. For up-to-date information on chemical control and other control measures, the reader should consult the Federal Pest Control Department (FPCD), the National Agricultural Extension and Liaison Services (NAERLS), of the National Agricultural Research Institute closest to you.
Nigerian farmers have never giving the goat the attention they deserve. Goat farming is a very profitable enterprise and it should be a serious business. Goat kids need to be I brooded in Batches to achieve economic of production. In the cold weather the dam and the kid need worm water. They need to be housed with bedding. All these are cheap and almost free to provide if we care to do them and the effect can be very much on your farm economy. The profit
margin of an average farm for example is well over 100% in a year excluding the set up costs and maintenance costs. Under normal market situations, it takes about N500 to rear a kid from birth to maturity age of nine months.
Surplus forage or forage in special purpose pastures can be conserved as hay or silage. Either or both of these grassland products assume a great significance particularly during the dry season when stock live weights decline due to feed shortage. Forage conservation basically aims to produce, at low cost, a stable product suitable for animal feeding with minimum loss of nutritive value. Deterioration due to internal chemical changes and external microbial action of cut herbage are prevented either by dehydration or acidification. Forage conservation hence provides more efficient animal production by making use of wasted pasture surpluses in the growing season. This reduces the decrease in body weight or production which may occur in the dry season and can prevent animal mortality in draught years.